FISO | White papers

White papers

Conference papers and published papers in scientific journals and on Internet 

 

2011 

Pressure measurement with fiber-optic sensors: Commercial technologies and applications

 

 2010

Temperature fiber-optic point sensor: Commercial technologies and industrial applications

2009

Fabry-Pérot Fiber-Optic Sensors for Physical Parameters Measurement in Challenging Conditions

Miniature all-glass robust pressure sensor

2007

True challenges of disposable optical fiber sensors for clinical environment

Disposable fiber-optic sensors for clinical environments

Health monitoring with optical fiber sensors: from human body to civil structures

Ultra-miniature all-glass Fabry-Pérot pressure sensor manufactured at the tip of a multimode optical fiber

2006

Temperature and pressure fiber-optic sensors applied to minimally invasive diagnostics and therapies

Pressure fiber-optic sensors in intra-aortic balloon pumping therapy

Sensitive Chemical Optic Sensor Using Birefringent Porous Glass for the Detection of Volatile Organic Compounds

Birefringent porous glass fiber-optic sensor as a low-cost end-of-service-life indicator (ESLI) for organic vapor respiratory cartridges

Capteurs miniatures de pression à fibre optique : Défis et opportunités des applications médicales

2005

Fiber optic sensors: New tools for polymer processing

Miniature fiber optic pressure sensor for medical applications: an opportunity for intra-aortic balloon pumping (IABP) therapy (Proceedings Paper)

2004

New optical sensor for volatile organic compounds (VOC) using birefringent porous glass

Capteur de pression cardiaque MOMS à fibre optique

 

2011

Pressure measurement with fiber-optic sensors:Commercial technologies and applications 

OFS-021

Abstract:

 Mainly three technologies are presently commercially available for pressure measurement with fiber-optic sensors: intensity-based, fiber Bragg gratings and Fabry-Pérot. The first one is probably the simplest and the cheapest but it is limited to applications where having 2 fixed or up to 4 flexible fibers is not an issue, whereas the two other technologies require only one fiber. With generally low sensitivity to pressure and prohibitive cost for non multiplexed measurements, fiber Bragg grating pressure sensors are still limited to marginal applications. Fabry-Pérot technology is the best compromise offering at affordable price a great flexibility in terms of pressure ranges, high sensitivity and miniature size suitable for most applications including disposable medical devices.

Complete paper (download)

2010

Temperature fiber-optic point sensor: Commercial technologies and industrial applications

MIDEM conference 2010

Abstract:

Temperature fiber-optic point-sensors have been commercialized for about two decades. Among the various available optical sensing technologies, only few ones have lead to commercial successes. For instance, temperature could be measured by fluorescence decay time of a phosphorus compound excited with UV light; the higher the temperature, the faster the decay. Semiconductor band-gap thermal properties could also be used for temperature sensing. As an example for GaAs, the wavelengths transmission cut-off is increasing al linearly with temperature (~0.3 nm/°C). By analyzing with a spectrometer the reflected spectrum of a white-light source, temperature could be deduced. Interferometry-based technology such as Fabry-Pérot is also a field-proven method for accurate measurement of temperature in various applications. In this case, the optical path of a Fabry-Pérot cavity is changing with temperature (~20 nm/°C). Finally with fiber Bragg grating technology, a Bragg grating is written inside the fiber and reflects a given wavelength which is slightly shifting with temperature (~10 pm/°C).

Several industrial applications involving temperature measurement contributed to the development of commercial optical fiber sensing technologies. Those include for instance the real-time temperature monitoring of hot spots in high-power transformers, of semiconductor plasma etchers or of microwave chemical reactors. Applications in the food industry or in the medical field are now also appearing.

Complete paper (download)

 Online paper

 

2009

Fabry-Pérot Fiber-Optic Sensors for Physical Parameters Measurement in Challenging Conditions

Journal of Sensors

Abstract:

Optical fiber sensors have unique advantages and distinctive features that make them very attractive for many applications especially those involving challenging conditions where other traditional electrical sensors usually fail. Among the commercially available optical fiber sensors, the Fabry-Pérot sensing technology is probably the most versatile and the most interesting one since a relatively low-cost universal signal conditioner could easily read compatible Fabry Pérot sensors measuring different physical parameters such as strain, temperature, pressure, displacement, or refractive index. This papers details the numerous advantages of this optical sensing technology and also summarizes the operating modes of commercially available signal conditioners and sensors.

Complete paper (download)

Online paper 

 

Miniature all-glass robust pressure sensor

Optics letters 

Abstract:

This paper describes a newly designed all-glass miniature (Ø 125 μm) fiber-optic pressure sensor design that is appropriate for high-volume manufacturing. The fabrication process is based on the chemical etching of specially-designed silica optical fiber, and involves a low number of critical production operations. The presented sensor design can be used with either single-mode or multi-mode lead-in fiber and is compatible with various types of available signal processing techniques. A practical sensor sensitivity exceeding 1000 nm/bar was achieved experimentally, which makes this sensor suitable for low-pressure measurements. The sensor showed high mechanical stability, good quality of optical surfaces, and very high tolerance to pressure overload. 

Complete paper (download)

 Online paper 

 

 

2007

 

True challenges of disposable optical fiber sensors for clinical environment 

EWOFS: 

Abstract:

Medical applications represent a unique chance of expansion for the optical fiber sensors (OFS) market that was confined so far mostly in niche applications where higher technological costs were justified by OFS distinctive advantages. Single use medical devices integrating OFS could however generate a significant growth for this type of technology. Thanks to cost reductions derived from the success of optical fiber used in the telecom industry, it is now possible to produce competitive disposable OFS for clinical environment. Cost reduction is nevertheless not the only challenge for this type of application: materials bio-compatibility and sterilization resistance, packaging issues, design considerations for end-user acceptance and operational simplicity, technology reliability including connectivity and sensor performances, manufacturing process monitoring and outstanding quality control, are among few of the problems that have to be considered to address correctly the complex medical market with successful disposable OFS devices. With a clear understanding of the needs and challenges of clinical applications, it is easier to respond to this reality and to offer commercially suitable solutions. 

Complete paper (download)

Online paper  

 

Disposable fiber-optic sensors for clinical environments

SPIE

Abstract:

Optical fiber sensors (OFSs) are attracting attention in the sensing world, especially for use in health-monitoring devices. Their miniature size, good performance in harsh environments, and insensitivity to electromagnetic (EM) and radio-frequency (RF) interference all add to their appeal. But high cost continues to confine them to niches for which other solutions are not feasible, leaving few applications suitable for mass production. Discardable OFSs, however, may represent a unique opportunity for this emerging technology

Complete paper (download)

Online paper  

 

Health monitoring with optical fiber sensors: from human body to civil structures

SSM-NDE 

Abstract:

Although structural health monitoring and patient monitoring may benefit from the unique advantages of optical fiber sensors (OFS) such as electromagnetic interferences (EMI) immunity, sensor small size and long term reliability, both applications are facing different realities. This paper presents, with practical examples, several OFS technologies ranging from single-point to distributed sensors used to address the health monitoring challenges in medical and in civil engineering fields.

OFS for medical applications are single-point, measuring mainly vital parameters such as pressure or temperature. In the intra-aortic balloon pumping (IABP) therapy, a miniature OFS can monitor in situ aortic blood pressure to trigger catheter balloon inflation/deflation in counter-pulsation with heartbeats. Similar sensors reliably monitor the intracranial pressure (ICP) of critical care patients, even during surgical interventions or examinations under medical resonance imaging (MRI). Temperature OFS are also the ideal monitoring solution for such harsh environments.

Most of OFS for structural health monitoring are distributed or have long gage length, although quasi-distributed short gage sensors are also used. Those sensors measure mainly strain/load, temperature, pressure and elongation. SOFO type deformation sensors were used to monitor and secure the Bolshoi Moskvoretskiy Bridge in Moscow. Safety of Plavinu dam built on clay and sand in Latvia was increased by monitoring bitumen joints displacement and temperature changes using SMARTape and Temperature Sensitive Cable read with DiTeSt unit. A similar solution was used for monitoring a pipeline built in an unstable area near Rimini in Italy. 

Complete paper (download)

Online paper  

 

Ultra-miniature all-glass Fabry-Pérot pressure sensor manufactured at the tip of a multimode optical fiber 

SPIE Newsroom

Abstract:

The design and fabrication of an ultra-miniature all-glass pressure sensor with a diameter of 125 μm are presented. The sensor consists of a thin flexible silica membrane fused on a capillary tube section, which is assembled at the tip of a standard multimode fiber, thus forming a Fabry-Pérot air cavity whose length depends on applied pressure. Controlled polishing steps including on-line tuning of the diaphragm thickness during the manufacturing process achieve good repeatability and high sensitivity of the pressure sensor. The prototypes obtained with the described manufacturing method could easily have a sensitivity of ~2 nm/kPa (~0.3 nm/mmHg) with a record, so far, of ~5 nm/kPa (~0.7 nm/mmHg). The relatively simple fabrication technique using common and inexpensive equipments and materials combined with the fact that such sensitive sensors with multimode fiber could be interrogated with low-cost commercial interrogators (such as those using white-light interferometry) make this option very attractive for many applications involving pressure measurement. The sensor significant size reduction is valuable especially for the medical field, for applications such as minimally invasive patient health monitoring and diagnostics or small animals testing. Disposable sensors with ultra-miniature size will certainly open the way for new medical diagnostics and therapies.

Complete paper (download)

 Online paper 

 

 

2006

 

Temperature and pressure fiber-optic sensors applied to minimally invasive diagnostics and therapies

BIOS: 

Abstract:

We present how fiber-optic temperature or pressure sensors could be applied to minimally invasive diagnostics and therapies. For instance a miniature pressure sensor based on micro-optical mechanical systems (MOMS) could solve most of the problems associated with fluidic pressure transduction presently used for triggering purposes. These include intra-aortic balloon pumping (IABP) therapy and other applications requiring detection of fast and/or subtle fluid pressure variations such as for intracranial pressure monitoring or for urology diagnostics. As well, miniature temperature sensors permit minimally invasive direct temperature measurement in diagnostics or therapies requiring energy transfer to living tissues. The extremely small size of fiber-optic sensors that we have developed allows quick and precise in situ measurements exactly where the physical parameters need to be known. Furthermore, their intrinsic immunity to electromagnetic interference (EMI) allows for the safe use of EMI-generating therapeutic or diagnostic equipments without compromising the signal quality. With the trend of ambulatory health care and the increasing EMI noise found in modern hospitals, the use of multi-parameter fiber-optic sensors will improve constant patient monitoring without any concern about the effects of EMI disturbances. The advantages of miniature fiber-optic sensors will offer clinicians new monitoring tools that open the way for improved diagnostic accuracy and new therapeutic technologies.

Complete paper (download)

Online paper  

 

Pressure fiber-optic sensors in intra-aortic balloon pumping therapy

EMDM

Abstract:

The miniature (∅ 550 μm) fibre optic sensor developed by FISO is based on Fabry-Pérot white light interferometry principle. The sensor is constituted of a micromachined silicon diaphragm membrane, acting as the pressure sensing element, bonded on a cup-shaped glass base. This creates a Fabry-Pérot cavity, whose optical length changes with the pressure variation. The sensor is connected to a multimode optical fiber which acts as the light conveyor between the sensor and the signal conditioner. White light from a lamp is directed towards the Fabry-Pérot cavity which modulates the signal with a low coherence interference thus coding the sensor cavity length. The wavelength modulated optical signal is then reflected back towards the signal conditioner which extracts the cavity length information using patented white-light cross-correlation technology.

Complete paper (download)

  

 

Sensitive Chemical Optic Sensor Using Birefringent Porous Glass for the Detection of Volatile Organic Compounds 

IEEE Sensors journal

Abstract:

A simple design involving a birefringent porous glass oriented between two crossed polarizers serves as the foundation for an optically based sensitive broad-spectrum chemical sensor. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as acetonitrile vapors can be readily detected at concentrations of as low as 50 ppm. Changes are observed in polarized light transmitted by the anisotropic porous material constituting the sensor, upon exposure to VOC-bearing air, as intensity changes at a defined wavelength or as changes in spectral content (color) detectable by the eye. The optical effects resulting from exposure to various vapors are reversible and may result from adsorption of solvent vapors with attendant reduction of anisotropy. The microporous structure as well as the surface chemistry of the sensor may be controlled for tuning the response to VOCs for industrial applications. Miniaturization of the sensor using low-cost materials such as plastic or glass optical fibers, Polaroid films, and birefringent porous glass is demonstrated. The sensor described in this paper could use ambient light as source and the eye as detector (color change) or electronically controlled light emission and detection for better sensitivity and real time monitoring of VOCs. Such intrinsic explosion proof sensors could be used to safely monitor VOC levels in remote environments 

Complete paper (download)

Online paper  

 

Birefringent porous glass fiber-optic sensor as a low-cost end-of-service-life indicator (ESLI) for organic vapor respiratory cartridges

OFS-18 

Abstract:

Birefringent porous glass integrated between two plastic optical fibers terminated by crossed Polaroid™ films was used as a low-cost end-of-service-life indicator (ESLI) for organic vapor cartridges. Birefringence is significantly reduced when volatile compounds condense into the anisotropic porous structure. Such changes could easily be quantified using a low-cost light source and detector and very simple light intensity analysis. We showed that such sensors integrated into an experimental organic vapor cartridge could easily detect the progression of low concentrations of solvents (such as 50 ppm of toluene) into the activated charcoal cartridge and thus truly be used as an ESLI. Since such robust sensors could detect broadband solvents by simple physical condensation similar to the trapping phenomena of activated carbon, they are probably ideal candidates for such application. 

Complete paper (download)

 Online paper 

 

 

Capteurs miniatures de pression à fibre optique : Défis et opportunités des applications médicales

 Available in French only

 

 

SFO-CMOI 

Abstract:

L'utilisation de capteurs de pression à fibre optique pour les applications médicales est encore marginale et souvent mal connue de la communauté médicale. Cependant, en dépit des défis technologiques qui restent à relever, ces capteurs possèdent d'importants avantages face aux capteurs électromécaniques traditionnels. En premier lieu, leur taille miniature permet une installation frontale à l'extrémité de cathéters; ainsi peut-on en réduire considérablement le diamètre par rapport à celui des cathéters à transduction fluidique de la pression. Ensuite ces capteurs sont totalement insensibles aux perturbations électromagnétiques, ce qui permet notamment leur utilisation continue sous imagerie par résonance magnétique (IRM) ou en présence des bistouris électriques. Enfin, leurs performances en sensibilité et fiabilité correspondent parfaitement aux requis médicaux. Ces sondes peuvent être intégrées dans des protocoles minimalement invasifs tels que la thérapie de contre-pulsation intra-aortique (intra aortic balloon pumping, IABP) ou bien pour des diagnostics ou du monitoring comme la mesure de la pression intracrânienne, l'urologie, la gynécologie, la gastroentérologie ou encore les études pré-cliniques sur des petits animaux. 

Complete paper (download)

 

 

 

 

2005

 

Fiber optic sensors: New tools for polymer processing

PPS Quebec Fiber Optic Sensors 

Abstract:

Fiber optic sensors were first developed few decades ago for markets where no other sensing solutions existed, such as applications where high electromagnetic interferences (EMI) could be present. Typical applications were for instance temperature measurements in microwave ovens or in high power transformers, strain measurements in electrical welding jaws, pressure measurements for medical applications... If insensitivity to EMI is probably the most interesting advantage of such sensors, other interesting advantages are now being considered: since optical technologies proved to be reliable and accessible, new applications are emerging where reduced size or geometry of such sensors could be the most interesting features. The comprehension of all fiber optic sensor advantages opens now new markets 

Complete paper (download)

  

 

Miniature fiber optic pressure sensor for medical applications: an opportunity for intra-aortic balloon pumping (IABP) therapy (Proceedings Paper) 

OFS-17 

Abstract:

In this paper we present how a miniature fiber optic pressure sensor based on micro-optical mechanical systems (MOMS) could solve most of the problems associated with fluidic pressure transduction presently used for triggering purposes in IABP therapy. The small size of the MOMS (0 550 μm) allows a positioning of the sensor directly at the tip of the intra-aortic catheter, exactly where the pressure should be monitored. With outstanding performances in terms of resolution and frequency fidelity, this absolute pressure sensor can precisely detect small pressure variations such as the dicrotic notch in the intra-aortic pressure waveform, which is used as a trigger point in IABP therapy. Such technology could probably help in the development of a less invasive therapy with reduced catheter size associated with reduction of vascular complications such as ischemia. The presented optical fiber sensor has intrinsic immunity to electromagnetic fields and noise perturbations. Furthermore, the patented white-light cross-correlation technology of the signal conditioner makes it immune to optical fiber binding and highly tolerant to optical losses. Such solution is extremely well adapted for in situ pressure monitoring in many medical applications.

Complete paper (download)

Online paper  

 

 

 

2004

 

New optical sensor for volatile organic compounds (VOC) using birefringent porous glass

IEEE SENSORS 

Abstract:

Changes observed in polarized light transmission through an anisotropic material, such as birefringent porous glass, upon contact with air bearing vapors of volatile organic compounds serve as the basis for a very sensitive broadband chemical sensor. When properly designed, vapor sensors based on such porous glasses show changes in intensity or spectral content (color) detectable by eye. When placed between two crossed polarizers the form-birefringent porous glass produces an observable phase shift that undergoes a readily detectabledecrease upon exposure to all organic vaporswe tested thus far. The optical effects resulting from exposure to vapors are reversible and believed to result from capillary condensation of solvent vapors and attendant reduction of anisotropy. A good control of the microporous structure as well of the surface chemistry offers flexibility for tuning the sensor response to VOC industrial applications. Simple sensor miniaturization with low cost materials is possible.

Complete paper (download)

Online paper  

 

Capteur de pression cardiaque MOMS à fibre optique

NANO QUEBEC 

Abstract:

FISO Technologies commercialise depuis récemment un capteur de pression (FOP-MIV) destiné au marché médical. La faible dimension de ce capteur à fibre optique (OD 550µm), sa grande fiabilité et son immunité intrinsèque aux perturbations électromagnétiques (interférences, électrochocs, imagerie par résonance magnétique…) en font un atout de choix comme instrument de mesure intégré par exemple à des systèmes mécaniques d’assistance cardiaque.

Complete paper (download)

 

  • Pressure measurement with fiber-optic sensors: Commercial technologies and applications
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